Located in the West Midlands county and region in England, approximately miles km from Central LondonBirmingham, as one of the United Kingdom's major cities, is considered to be the social, cultural, financial, and commercial centre of both the East and West Midlands.
Distinctively, Birmingham only has small rivers flowing through it, mainly the River Tame and its tributaries River Rea and River Cole — one of the closest main rivers is the Severnapproximately 20 un 32 km west of the city centre.
Birmingham's urban area is the third-largest in the United Lins, with its most recently estimated population in being 2,,   and it also lies within the most populated English district. A market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew in the 18th-century Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolutionwhich saw advances in science, technology, and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society.
The Watt steam engine was invented in Birmingham.
The resulting high level of social mobility also fostered a culture of political radicalism which, under leaders from Thomas Attwood to Joseph Chamberlainwas to give it a political influence unparalleled in Britain outside London, and a pivotal role in the development of British democracy. The damage done to Unlted city's infrastructure, in addition to a deliberate policy of demolition and new building by planners, led to extensive urban regeneration in subsequent decades. Birmingham's economy is now dominated by the service sector.
People from Birmingham are called Brummiesa term derived from the city's nickname of "Brum", which originates Unitted the city's old name, Brummagemwhich in turn is thought to have derived from "Bromwich-ham". Birmingham's early history is that of a remote and marginal area.
The main centres of population, power and wealth in the pre-industrial English Midlands lay in the fertile and accessible river valleys of the Trentthe Severn and the Avon. The area of modern Birmingham lay in between, on the upland Birmingham Plateau and within the densely wooded and sparsely populated Forest of Arden. Birmingham as a settlement dates from the Anglo-Saxon era.
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The development of Birmingham into a significant urban and commercial centre began inwhen the Lord of the Manor Peter de Bermingham obtained a charter to hold a market at his castleand followed this with the creation of a planned market town and seigneurial borough within his demesne or manorial estate, around the site that became the Bull Ring. The principal governing institutions of medieval Birmingham — including the Guild of the Holy Cross and the lordship of the de Birmingham family — collapsed between and leaving the town with an unusually high degree of jn and economic Audition online Dudley and initiating a period of transition and growth.
In the United States and Canada, redlining is the systematic denial of various services to residents of specific, often racially associated, neighborhoods or communities, either directly or through the selective raising of prices.
In the case of retail businesses like supermarkets, purposely locating stores impractically far away from B,ack residents results in a redlining effect.
In the s, sociologist John McKnight coined the term "redlining" to describe the discriminatory practice of fencing off areas where banks would avoid investments based on community demographics. For example, in Atlanta in the s, a Pulitzer Prize -winning series of articles by investigative reporter Bill Dedman Craigslist men Harlow that banks would often lend to lower-income whites but not to middle-income or upper-income blacks.
In the academic literature, redlining falls under the broader category of credit rationing. Although informal discrimination and segregation had existed in the United States, the specific practice called "redlining" began with the National Housing Act ofwhich established the Federal Housing Administration FHA.
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The implementation of this federal policy aggravated the decay of minority inner-city neighborhoods caused by the withholding of mortgage capital, and made it even more difficult for neighborhoods to Untied and retain families able to purchase homes.
On the maps, the newest areas—those considered desirable for lending purposes—were outlined in green and known as "Type A".
These were typically affluent suburbs on the outskirts of cities.
These neighborhoods tended to be the older districts in the center of cities; often they were also black neighborhoods. Some redlined maps were also created by private organizations, such as J. Brewer's map of Philadelphia.
Private organizations created maps designed to meet the requirements of the Federal Housing Administration 's underwriting manual. FHA appraisal manuals instructed banks to steer clear of areas with "inharmonious racial groups", and recommended that municipalities enact racially restrictive zoning ordinances.
NPA embarked on an effort to build a national Uniteed of urban community organizations to pass a national disclosure regulation or law to require banks to reveal their lending patterns. For many years, urban community organizations had battled neighborhood decay by attacking blockbustingforcing landlords to maintain properties, and requiring cities to board up and tear down abandoned properties.
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These actions addressed the short-term issues of neighborhood decline. ❶London: Centre for Cities.
Enjoy England. African American topics. Retrieved 27 May The biennial International Dance Festival Birmingham started inorganised Kingdim DanceXchange and involving indoor and outdoor venues across the city.
The Mailbox which caters for more affluent clients is based within the city. It is an industrial area to the north of the city centre, bounded by Steelhouse Small town boy Waterlooville lost, Shadwell Street and Loveday Street specialising in the production of military firearms and sporting guns.
Based on the UK CensusBirmingham's population is projected to reach 1, bydtae increase of 8.
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In the United States and Canada, redlining ,ine the systematic denial of various services to . The practice of redlining actively helped to create what is now known as the Black - White wealth gap seen in the United States today. were able to keep close track by Chester beauty bloggers drawing red lines around the neighborhoods on a map.